Herzberg and his associates carried out interviews of persons including engineers and accountants. Both emphasized versions of "self-actualization" as being more important than basic needs.
It infers that higher level needs cannot evolve until the lower level needs are not satisfied. He posited a five-stage hierarchy of needs that began with basic needs characterized as "physical" and progressed through stages including security needs, social needs, ego the need for power, influence, and recognition until arriving at what he called "self-actualization.
The first was what he called "hygiene" needs, which included the basics like pay, work conditions, and job stability. This theory is probably the most widespread motivation system in use today, evolving into the primary evaluation system in many companies. Volunteers by definition receive no pay for their services, yet there are thousands of people who choose to work over liesure activity.
Unlike in the case of Herzberg, only higher level needs are counted as the motivator. The differences are apparent when analyzing the characteristics of each theory.
A major criticism of theory is it does not explain every job category. The theory emphasizes the urge to satisfy needs of people working in the organization.
Therefore, Taylor surmised the worker was motivated by pay in order to meet basic needs and obtain liesure status at some point. Each theory of motivation is dependent upon the management to institute the motivational factor. Elton Mayo argued the Human Relation theory best addressed motivating a group.
In short, both psychologists thought that certain needs had to be met in order for people to fulfill their potential and to develop. One worker may include greater input into the project and feel the contribution should gain more recognition. He suggests workers dislike working and would choose to enjoy liesure activity over work if given the choice.
Abraham Maslow and Frederick Herzberg forwarded the idea the workers are motivated when their needs are met along many different levels ranging from basic needs to advancement recognition. A critique of this theory is the inadequate contributions of workers. This theory is still in use tody.
The espirit de corps, or group motivation, of teams are higher when everyone is given a part of the mission, despite the inherent dangers of combat.
Central themes to this theory include equality among peers and the fair evaluation of their work product. As the needs of human beings are unlimited, whenever one need is satisfied, another need take its place. Conclusion The two models developed by the two experts aims at simplifying the motivational process which proved that motivation is an important factor to improve the performance level of employees.
Of the theories there are three which stand out as macro theories on motivation; Scientific management, Human Relations, and the Hiearchy of Needs. The needs of an individual are divided into two categories i.
This theory gives companies the greatest diversity in providing individual motivation to workers. However, they all share a common factor.Both theories confer that a specific set of needs must be met in order to propiciate behavior, and maintain it.
In Manslow's theory, it is through a Hierarchy of Needs. In Herzberg's theory it is through a 2 way paradigm in which two specific needs must be met and they are hygiene (basic physical and psychological needs) and motivation.
There are many ways to view motivation in the workplace and it has been a source of study for many years. Of the theories there are three which stand out as macro theories on motivation; Scientific management, Human Relations, and the Hiearchy of Needs.
The theories have few similarities and many differences. Using a range of theories from across the HR syllabus compare and contrast two organizations of your choice from either the public or private sectors. Motivation within Marks and Spencer 's Marks and Spencer 's exercise a very effective motivational policy via their very successful human resources department/5(2).
Two such theories are Expectancy theory and Equity theory A) Vrooms expectancy theory: Vrooms formula: motivation=expectancy X value According to this theory motivation of any individual depends on the desired goal and strength of.
The Motivation of employees has always been perceived as a means for an organization, not only to survive, but also thrive.
There is a general feeling that. Compare and Contrast of Motivational Theories Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Maslow showed little interest in animal or laboratory studies of human behavior.
He chose instead to collect data for his theories by studying outstanding individuals.
His studies led him to believe that people have certain needs, which are unchanging and genetic in origin.Download