Craik and Lockhart argued that deep processing leads to better long-term memory than shallow processing. Maintenance refers to repetition, while elaboration refers to the organization of information such as chunking or chronology.
This can lead to a circular argument - it is predicted that deeply processed information will be remembered better, but the measure of depth of processing is how well the information is remembered. However, they failed to provide a detailed account of why deep processing is so effective.
It states that information is stored simultaneously in different areas of the brain, and connected as a network. The levels of processing model changed the direction of memory research.
Firstly, individuals have varying levels of cognitive load, or the amount of mental effort they can engage in at a given moment, due to individual characteristics and intellectual capacities.
The levels-of-processing effect is only found for explicit memory tests. This explanation of memory is useful in everyday life because it highlights the way in which elaboration, which requires deeper processing of information, can aid memory.
Semantic processing of odors e. Weaknesses Despite these strengths, there are a number of criticisms of the levels of processing theory: Archived from the original pdf on Craik and Tulving Aim To investigate how deep and shallow processing affects memory recall.
For example, in a lexical analysis task, subjects showed activity in the left inferior prefrontal cortex only when identifying whether the word represented a living or nonliving object, and not when identifying whether or not the word contained an "a".
Sensory memory In sensory memory, information is gathered via the senses through a process called transduction. They were asked to pick out the original words. Consequently more information will be remembered and recalled and better exam results should be achieved.
Participants were then given a long list of words into which the original words had been mixed. The deeper the level of processing, the easier the information is to recall. Craik defined depth as: The levels of processing theory focuses on the processes involved in memory, and thus ignores the structures.
The general model of information processing theory includes three components: Some general constraints on learning and memory research. Modifiers[ edit ] Familiaritytransfer-appropriate processingthe self-reference effectand the explicit nature of a stimulus modify the levels-of-processing effect by manipulating mental processing depth factors.
Phonemic and visually processed words involve shallow processing and less accurate recall. Sensory memories transferred into working memory will last for seconds, with a capacity for pieces or chunks of information. For example, elaboration rehearsal leads to recall of information than just maintenance rehearsal.
Structural processing appearance which is when we encode only the physical qualities of something. Learning and Long-term memory. This is the only type of rehearsal to take place within the multi-store model. These theories equate thought mechanisms to that of a computer, in that it receives input, processes, and delivers output.
So, it could be that the results are partly due to more time being spent on the material. Real Life Applications This explanation of memory is useful in everyday life because it highlights the way in which elaboration, which requires deeper processing of information, can aid memory.
Though influential, the linearity of this theory reduced the complexity of the human brain, and thus various theories were developed in order to further assess the inherent processes. Rumelhart and McClelland Key Concepts The basic idea of Information processing theory is that the human mind is like a computer or information processor — rather than behaviorist notions that people merely responding to stimuli.
Through receptor cell activity, it is altered into a form of information that the brain could process. In one study, phonological and orthographic processing created higher recall value in word list-recall tests.
Within visual studies, pictures have been shown to have a greater recall value than words — the picture superiority effect. As a result, they are difficult to measure. Deep Processing - This involves 3.
It is also one of the most widely studied. Saul McLeodpublished The levels of processing model Craik and Lockhart, focuses on the depth of processing involved in memory, and predicts the deeper information is processed, the longer a memory trace will last.
Later research indicated that processing is more complex and varied than the levels of processing theory suggests. Archived from the original on The idea, associated with memory consolidation, that the hippocampus is involved in retrieval of remote memories, especially episodic memories.
This contrasts with the standard model of memory, which proposes that the hippocampus is involved only in the retrieval of recent memories. The levels of processing model (Craik and Lockhart, ) focuses on the depth of processing involved in memory, and predicts the deeper information is processed, the longer a memory trace will last.
Craik defined depth as: "the meaningfulness extracted from the stimulus rather than in terms of the number of analyses performed upon it.” Author: Saul Mcleod.
Unlike most editing & proofreading services, we edit for everything: grammar, spelling, punctuation, idea flow, sentence structure, & more. Get started now! Chapter 7: Cognition. STUDY. PLAY. memory. human capacity to register, retain, and remember information encoding.
the process of putting information into the memory system (part of information processing model) storage. the retention of encoded information over time (part of the information processing model ability to form.
Winn and Snyder () attribute the idea that memory is organized into structures to the work of Sir Frederick Charles Bartlett.
Bartlett’s work established two consistent patterns for more in depth models for information processing. The Stage Model. Traditionally, the most widely used model of information processing is the stage theory.
The study examined the idea that the organization of information in memory varies depending on the depth of processing during input, as well as on the conditions for retrieval. Two types of memory organization are distinguished: Conceptual organization implies a hierarchical structure in which items.Download